• Forever is the last day on God’s calendar
  • Infinity is the finite point at the end of God’s outstretched hand


  • Truth is an absolute which endures forever
  • Truth is reflected in music, mathematics, and esthetics
  • Facts are the notes of a song, the elements of an equation, and the form in sculpture


  • A view of the truth can be gained by assembly of the facts
  • Truth is fact, but fact is not truth, it is merely a true fact
  • A fact is a form of information, but not all information is factual
  • Trust is the belief that a fact is true
  • Distrust is formed by the omission or commission of information
  • To believe in the facts does not require faith
  • The integration of all possible facts reveals the truth
  • T = f ( F1, … , FN) where T is the truth and F is a fact


  • Knowledge involves belief, but not all belief is based on knowledge
  • In the absence of fact, faith is the basis of belief
  • An assumption is merely a potential fact which is dependent upon faith


  • To know the truth is to know all of the facts
  • To know the facts requires investigation
  • Investigation is driven by questions
  • A question (Q) always precedes an answer (A), thus A = f ( Q )
  • Questions lead and answers follow
  • Without the question an answer is merely information, not an answer
  • The same question invariably leads to the same answer
  • To change the answer is to change the question
  • We won’t change the question without reason to do so
  • We can only reason from what we know
  • What we know is based on facts
  • Every fact is an answer to some question
  • Facts are discovered, not created


  • Measurement has the potential to generate new questions
  • Changing the measurement can change the question
  • As the question changes, new behaviors will emerge
  • Designing a system of behavior can translate to designing a system of measurement
  • We only know what we experience
  • We can’t assess what we don’t experience
  • We don’t question what we don’t assess
  • Measurement is the strongest form of assessment
  • To change the question is to change measurement
  • The absence of measurement is a shield of ambiguity
  • As measurement increases ambiguity diminishes
  • As ambiguity diminishes, direction becomes clear
  • Only when direction is clear can people be united
  • Only when people are united can a common action be taken
  • Measurement yields data; hence, data are an artifact of measurement
  • Data are used to describe, regulate, or improve an object, situation, or phenomenon
  • We can’t improve what we don’t measure


  • We don’t measure what we don’t value
  • We form values around positive or negative consequence
  • Consequence is realized only through interaction with the environment


  • Knowledge is realized through experience
  • We can’t know what we don’t experience
  • Experience is obtained by way of interaction with the environment
  • The limit of experience is governed by the limits of interaction within an environment
  • Interaction within an environment leads to observation
  • Not all observations are accurate or precise
  • Measurement is the basis for establishing validity of observation
  • Observations can be classified by rational grouping
  • The rationality of grouping can only be established by assessment


  • The outcome of measurement is numerical data
  • Data are not information – they must be analytically tortured to confess its meaning
  • Interpretation of data is enhanced through numerical analysis
  • Numerical analysis is dependent upon mathematics
  • Mathematics is a reflection of reality
  • Measurement yields data; hence, data are an artifact of measurement
  • Data are used to describe, regulate, or improve an object, situation, or phenomenon


  • Y = f ( X ), where Y is the dependent variable and X is the independent variable
  • Y is symptomatic of the behavior in X, thus Y is the effect and X is the cause
  • The relational function (f) is either linear or nonlinear by nature
  • The presence of Y is evidence that one or more X’s must exist
  • Y = f (X1, … , XN), where N is the Nth variable in the system of causation
  • Every X will have some effect on Y either independently or interactively
  • Every X carries a unique weight ( ) relative to Y, by virtue of f


  • Observation is verified through replication of interaction within an environment
  • No two replicates are ever exactly alike, variations are inevitable
  • Variation in replication is referred to as “error,” or for short
  • Error in replication ( ) is attributable to change within the system of causation
  • Extent of replication error is directly related to the extent of change within the cause system
  • As the control of a cause system approaches 1.0, replication error ( ) approaches 0.0
  • As the control of a cause system approaches 0.0, replication error ( ) is indeterminate
  • The accuracy and precision of replication can only be established with measurements
  • No measurement is perfect, some error is inevitable


  • The concept of change is not dependent upon improvement
  • The idea of improvement (I) is dependent upon the concept of change (C), thus I = f (C)
  • Change and improvement are both relative to at least one baseline condition


  • Data is not information until it is interrogated
  • Information is a rational basis for decision making
  • Decisions lead to interaction with the environment
  • Interaction with the environment leads to observation
  • Replication of observation leads to validity of experience
  • Valid experience is classified as knowledge


  • Patterns which we can not discerned by human device are said to be random
  • The idea of a random event exists only as a human conception
  • Nothing in nature happens by random chance
  • Everything moves in some form of trend, shift, or cycle over time
  • The complex blending of independent events can create complex patterns
  • Complex patterns which can not be discerned create the perception of random behavior


  • Repetition of observation leads to expectation
  • Any observed departure (O) from a desired expectation (E) constitutes a problem
  • The extent to which a problem exists ( ) is given by = O – E
  • A full solution is condition in which = 0


  • Systemization is the foundation of organization
  • The purpose of a corporation is to minimize transactional costs
  • Management is the judicious use of control toward the attainment of an end


  • If we don’t know, we can not act
  • If we can not act, the risk of loss is high
  • If we do know and act, the risk can be managed
  • If we do know and fail to act, we deserve the loss


  • Business – exchange of value
  • Value – comprised of utility, access and worth
  • Value – belief, ideal, or standard which characterizes something
  • Entitlement – rightful expectation of something
  • Quality – state in which full value entitlement has been realized
  • Behavior – way in which something responds
  • Process – a series of operations or actions leading to an outcome
  • Innovation – change made by the introduction of something new
  • Product – an article having an exchange value
  • Service – performance of labor for another
  • Transaction – performance of business or any piece of business
  • Design – to contrive for a purpose
  • Defect – presence or absence of something which inhibits a state of quality
  • Opportunity – set of circumstances favorable to an end
  • Characteristic – distinguishing attribute, trait, or property
  • Scale – relative basis for measuring a characteristic
  • Standard – criterion state, condition, or model circumstance
  • Density – quantity per unit of measure


  • We are in business to make money
  • We make money by satisfying needs
  • We are able to satisfy needs by doing
  • Every need/do pair is an interaction
  • The aim of customer focus is on improving need/do interactions
  • Repetition of the same action constitutes a process
  • Improvement our business means improvement of our processes
  • Customers need products/services on-time, with zero defects, at the lowest cost
  • Suppliers create processes to generate needed products
  • As process capability improves, the product quality increases
  • As quality increases, costs and cycle-time go down
  • The attributes of customer satisfaction must be measured if they are to be improved
  • To improve means we must be able to predict and prevent, not detect and react
  • Prediction is correlated to certainty
  • Maximization of certainty is dependent upon the measurement of process capability
  • Process capability is best understood and reported using statistics
  • Statistics are dependent upon data
  • Data must be collected in the process according to a plan
  • Statistical analysis is used to convert raw data into meaningful summary information
  • Statistical information is used to report on, improve, and control the process
  • The basis of statistics is the mean and standard deviation
  • The mean reports on process centering
  • The standard deviation reports the extent of variation or “scatter” about the mean
  • By combining the mean and standard deviation, the “sigma” of a process can be calculated
  • The “sigma” of a process tells us how capable it is
  • The process sigma can be used to compare similar or dissimilar processes
  • Such comparison of processes is called benchmarking
  • Benchmarking is a competitive tool used to uncover what we do well and not so good
  • Once basic competencies and deficiencies are know, corrective action can be taken
  • Corrective action leads to the reduction of defects, cycle-time, and cost
  • The reduction of defects, cycle-time, and cost leads to improved customer satisfaction
  • As customer satisfaction improves, the likelihood of doing business increases
  • As business increases, we (as individuals) grow and prosper